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Computer Vision Syndrome: Children and Teens
Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is defined as the complex of eye, vision and body problems associated with excessive computer use. Most parents are rightly concerned about the types of people or subject matter that their children and teenagers mi.... Read More

Dry Eye Symptoms: Causes and Treatments
As discussed in the Introduction article, there are three main areas that contribute to dry eye symptoms: Inadequate tear production Tears that evaporate too quickly from the ocular surfaces Imbalance between the three main components of normal .... Read More

Dry Eye Symptoms: Introduction
There are multiple causes behind the symptoms, so finding the specific cause and the best treatment is not as straightforward as it may seem. Also, the term “dry eyes” may actually be one symptom of other conditions, such as.... Read More

Dry Eye Symptoms: Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the term used for a family of eyelid margin disorders that cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching or burning, dryness, crusty lid margins, grittiness, and even the eventual loss of eyelashes. MGD is.... Read More

What's Your Vision "Eye-Q?"
According to a survey done by the American Optometric Association, the first American Eye-Q ™ parents lack important knowledge about eye health and vision care for their children and themselves. Want to see how you do against the original part.... Read More


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Papilledema is an ocular condition that causes swelling of the optic nerve. It is commonly bilateral, affecting both eyes, affects both sexes equally, can occur at any age, and is most commonly caused by increased pressure in the brain. Each optic nerve transmits visual impulses from the retina and transmits the nerve impulses to the brain. The optic nerve is covered by the same protective sheath or linings that cover the brain and spinal cord. This sheath is regarded as a continuation of the central nervous system and part of its function is to bath the tissue it lines with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a result, brain diseases that cause an increase in CSF pressure can also cause an increase in fluid pressure in the optic nerve. When papilledema is found it can also indicate the presence of intracranial hypertension. Intracranial hypertension is a neurological condition that is caused by increase pressure around the brain. This condition can occur in all age groups but is most often seen in young women, especially those with obesity or on oral contraceptives.

When papilledema is observed from analysis of the central retina, it requires careful medical assessment to prevent or minimize vision loss. It can occur over hours or weeks. This ocular condition can be asymptomatic, however symptoms can include headaches in the early stages, blurring of vision, transient periods of vision loss, inability to see a particular part of vision, double vision, nausea, and vomiting.

Treatment of papilledema is aimed at trying to determine the underlying cause of the brain disease. If increased intracranial pressure is the cause, treatment may include medications or lumbar puncture. Space-occupying lesions in the brain and central nervous system must also be ruled-out. Imaging studies (MRI), neurologic examination, and/or, internal medicine consultations may be needed to definitively identify the underlying cause.