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Computer Vision Syndrome: Children and Teens
Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is defined as the complex of eye, vision and body problems associated with excessive computer use. Most parents are rightly concerned about the types of people or subject matter that their children and teenagers mi.... Read More

Dry Eye Symptoms: Causes and Treatments
As discussed in the Introduction article, there are three main areas that contribute to dry eye symptoms: Inadequate tear production Tears that evaporate too quickly from the ocular surfaces Imbalance between the three main components of normal .... Read More

Dry Eye Symptoms: Introduction
There are multiple causes behind the symptoms, so finding the specific cause and the best treatment is not as straightforward as it may seem. Also, the term “dry eyes” may actually be one symptom of other conditions, such as.... Read More

Dry Eye Symptoms: Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the term used for a family of eyelid margin disorders that cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching or burning, dryness, crusty lid margins, grittiness, and even the eventual loss of eyelashes. MGD is.... Read More

What's Your Vision "Eye-Q?"
According to a survey done by the American Optometric Association, the first American Eye-Q ™ parents lack important knowledge about eye health and vision care for their children and themselves. Want to see how you do against the original part.... Read More


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The retina is the thin multi-layered inner lining of the back of the eye responsible for capturing light and chemically transforming light into an electronic form so that it can be passed to the brain instantly. The bottom normally pigmented layer of the retina is called the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). When the RPE layer of the retina is thicker than normal it presents during routine examination as a darker mole-like area. Any atypical area of our body always requires extra caution and monitoring. This condition has two forms, one being thicker than normal at birth and another form that presents itself later in life. Both types are usually without symptoms.

Congenital retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy (CHRPE) is generally documented in patients before they reach 30 years of age. It is possible for this form of congenital hypertrophy to enlarge slightly over time however it is not associated with life-threatening malignant conditions. Literature has identified some association of this congenital form of CHRPE with certain familial colon disorders. As a result, despite its benign status in the eye it should be shared information with a physician or gastroenterologist.

The acquired type of retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy is always found later in life. They are typically jet-black to dark grey, they are always flat without elevation and are commonly observed with halos around the edges. In addition they may be found with lightly colored areas within, called lacunae, and are most often in the peripheral retina.

These hypertrophy conditions have no observed symptoms but need to be watched carefully. Digital retinal photographs are usually taken to document any changes. Routine eye examinations are recommended to make sure these benign lesions don’t change into melanomas.